Vision of Kamchatka
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Native people of Kamchatka

Koryaks

Koryak

The Koryaks are the main population of the northern Kamchatka part. They have their own autonomy - the Koryaksky Region.
The name of this people as Krasheninnikov and Steller thought originated from "khora" - "deer". But Kryaks don't call themselves with this word. The coastal residents call themselves as "nimilany" - "residents of a settled village". Nomads herding deer called themselves "chavchuvens", it means "reindeer people".
For the chavchuvens reindeer breading was the main, even the only way of living. Deer gave them everything necessary: meat, skin for clothes (reindeer skin for coveralls, footwear) and for building of thansportable dwellings (yarangas), bones were used for making tools and household articles, fat - for dwelling lightening. Deer were a means of conveyance either.
For the Nimilans the main way to survive was fishing. Fish was generally caught in rivers with the help of stinging-nettle (it took about two years to make one net and it was used only for one year). In settled villages marine hunting was the second way of surviving after fishing. Going out to sea on skin covered baydarkas was common. Harbor seal and whales became the target of harpoons, which were tied to the bow, and were killed with stone tip spears. Marine animals, skin was used for boat, ski covering, footwear, bags, sacks and belts. Domestic activities were highly developed - wood and bone carving, metal works, national clothes and carpets making, embroiling with beads, braiding. A lot of such works are displayed at the Museum of Local Lore. Tourists can admire the skillfulness of the masters.
The Nimilans lived in groups: in winter - in half-dug-houses, in summer - in booths with their families, they used to catch fish, to hunt, and to pick berries. The Chavchuvens lived in temporary settlements consisting of some skin-covered yarangs. They used to herd reindeer and to dress skin. Hunting and fishing were of the secondary value for them. They migrated on dog- and reindeer-sledges.

Itelmens

Itelmen The name of the nationality means "living here". The south bound of settling is the Lopatka Cape. Northern one - the Tigil River on the west coast, the Uka River is on the east coast. Ancient Itlmen settlements were located on the banks of the Kamchatka (Uykoal), Yelovka (Kooch), Bolshaya, Bistraya, Avacha rivers and on the Avacha Harbor coast.
At the end of the 17 - beginning of the 18 centuries, when Russian explorers crossed the central part of Kamchatka, the Itelmens were at the level of disintegration primitive communal system development.
At the settlement consisting of a few half-dug-houses the folk Toyony lived. Some names of Toytony are written on the of Kamchatka. Itelmens life in summer was spent near some water resources and on them. They moved along the rivers in whole-carved boats made mainly of poplar. They caught fish with threshed nettle nets, built trapping dams. Some fish was cooked as yukola, some was burried for some time under the ground. But lack of salt didn't allow to store much fish.
Hunting was of the same value for this folk - fox, sable, bear, snow sheep; at the coast area - marine animals: sea lion, seal, sea otter. Also gathering was very popular (edible roots, edible and officinal plants, berries). Means of conveyance were made of birch (sledge and cargo sledge with soft belts). The ancient sledges were richly decorated.
The Itelmens ate a lot of fish, preferred baked one (chuprikh) and fish cakes "telno", they ate young sprouts and runners of Filepinolium Maxim, Heracleum Dulse Fish (processed and ate them only after they acquired stinging power); as a medicine against scurvy they used cedar cones with dry salmon caviar chasing this mixture with tea. Food was seasoned with fat - favorite spice of all northern peoples. Women-Itelmens had a custom to wear wigs. Those who had the most luxurious and the thickest one was highly honored. Those fashionable women never wore hats. Young women did up their heavy black raven-wing-like hair in lot of thin plaits decorating them with small hair wigs in the shape of hats. Perhaps, that's why the Chukchis and Koryaks might have called the Itelmens kamchadals, because in both languages the word "kamcha" means "curly", "disheveled", and "levit" or "lyavit" means "head".
Itelmens clothes were extraordinary, they were made of sable, fox, snow sheep, dog's skin with numerous ermine tassels and fluffy edged sleeves, hood, collar and hem. Steller wrote: ":the most beautiful reindeer skin coveralls (kukhlyankas) were decorated on the collars, sleeves and hems with dog's fur, and on the kaftan (short reindeer skin coverall) was hanged with hundreds of seal's tassels coloured red, they dangled to and fro at every movement". Such Itelmens' clothing made an impression of hairiness.

Evens and Evenky (tunguses)

Evens and Evenky (tunguses)

The Evens and Evenky (tunguses) are similar by culture. The Evens ancestors having come to Kamchatka changed their traditional occupation hunting for reindeer breeding. Russians arriving to Kamchatka called the Evens roaming from place to place along the Okhotsk seaside "lamuts", it means "living by the sea". Herdsmen they called "orochi", it means "reindeer men". Beside reindeer breeding and hunting the coastal Evens caught fish and hunted marine animals. For fishing they made different kinds of dams and traps. Blacksmith's work was very popular with the Evens.
The Evens did not wear blind clothes like the Koryaks, Itelmens and Chukcis did, but unlacing ones. Complete set of a man's wear consisted of a short knee-reaching reindeer parka with running down lapels, trousers, a chest apron put on the parka, knee protectors, furstockings and boots made of reindeer led skin with soles of bearded seal skin. Wearing especially women's one was decorated with beads. In contrast to other natives of Kamchatka the Evens didn't use dogsleds and didn't wear blind clothes.

Chukchis

The Northern Koryaks' neighbours were the Chukchis, "reindeer men" (chauchu), some of them moved to Kamchatka. As for the household the Chukchi were like the Koryaks - reindeer breeders. A holder of less than 100 reindeer was considered poor and couldn't keep a herd. Unfortunately, history of these two peoples' neighbourhood knows a lot of examples of wars for herds. The Chukchis are native Kamchatka people, now a lot of them live here. Like the Koryaks there were the Chukchis who lived in settled villages and provided their living by fishing and hunting for marine animals. The Chukchis are perfect seamen skillfully operating boats on a cold sea. It is well known that their "fleet" used to trade with the Eskimoes launching towards the American shore. Main hunting implements were a bow and arrows, a spear and a harpoon. A bow and a spear were used in hunting for wild reindeer and snow sheep, a harpoon and a lance - in marine hunting. Arrow-, spear- and harpoon-heads were made of bone and stone. In catching all water-fowl and game the Chukchis used bola (an instrument for catching birds on the wing) and pratsha (a military weapon either). The protection armour was made of antlers, walrus' skin and tusks. Main Chukchis' means of conveyance was reindeer, but like the Koryaks and Itelmens they also used dogsledges. On the sea the Chukchis moved in kayaks accommodating 20-30 men. With favorable wind they used square sails made of reindeer suede (rovdugas) like the Koryaks-Nimilans, and for a betterbalance they tied to board sides stocking-like sealskin, which was filled with air.

Aleuts

The Aleuts - ancient Aleutian Islands natives. They called themselves "unangan", it means "seaside residents". Main traditional Aleuts' occupations were hunting for marine animals and fishing. For winter the Aleuts stored eggs from birds colonies on the seashore.
The dwellings of the Aleuts were similar to the traditional half-dughouses but slightly different. Among the household articles there were baskets, bags plaited from grass; for storing of fat, yukola, crowberries with fat and so on dry seal stomach was used. On the Bering Island dogsleds became a very popular means of conveyance. For wandering in the mountains the Aleuts of the Medny Island used broad skis covered with seal skin for the nap would help while climbing not to slide down from the mountain.

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