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Native people of Kamchatka
The Koryaks are the main population of the northern Kamchatka part. They have their own autonomy - the Koryaksky Region.
ItelmensThe name of the nationality means "living here". The south bound of settling is the Lopatka Cape. Northern one - the Tigil River on the west coast, the Uka River is on the east coast. Ancient Itlmen settlements were located on the banks of the Kamchatka (Uykoal), Yelovka (Kooch), Bolshaya, Bistraya, Avacha rivers and on the Avacha Harbor coast.
At the end of the 17 - beginning of the 18 centuries, when Russian explorers crossed the central part of Kamchatka, the Itelmens were at the level of disintegration primitive communal system development.
At the settlement consisting of a few half-dug-houses the folk Toyony lived. Some names of Toytony are written on the of Kamchatka. Itelmens life in summer was spent near some water resources and on them. They moved along the rivers in whole-carved boats made mainly of poplar. They caught fish with threshed nettle nets, built trapping dams. Some fish was cooked as yukola, some was burried for some time under the ground. But lack of salt didn't allow to store much fish.
Hunting was of the same value for this folk - fox, sable, bear, snow sheep; at the coast area - marine animals: sea lion, seal, sea otter. Also gathering was very popular (edible roots, edible and officinal plants, berries). Means of conveyance were made of birch (sledge and cargo sledge with soft belts). The ancient sledges were richly decorated.
The Itelmens ate a lot of fish, preferred baked one (chuprikh) and fish cakes "telno", they ate young sprouts and runners of Filepinolium Maxim, Heracleum Dulse Fish (processed and ate them only after they acquired stinging power); as a medicine against scurvy they used cedar cones with dry salmon caviar chasing this mixture with tea. Food was seasoned with fat - favorite spice of all northern peoples. Women-Itelmens had a custom to wear wigs. Those who had the most luxurious and the thickest one was highly honored. Those fashionable women never wore hats. Young women did up their heavy black raven-wing-like hair in lot of thin plaits decorating them with small hair wigs in the shape of hats. Perhaps, that's why the Chukchis and Koryaks might have called the Itelmens kamchadals, because in both languages the word "kamcha" means "curly", "disheveled", and "levit" or "lyavit" means "head".
Itelmens clothes were extraordinary, they were made of sable, fox, snow sheep, dog's skin with numerous ermine tassels and fluffy edged sleeves, hood, collar and hem. Steller wrote: ":the most beautiful reindeer skin coveralls (kukhlyankas) were decorated on the collars, sleeves and hems with dog's fur, and on the kaftan (short reindeer skin coverall) was hanged with hundreds of seal's tassels coloured red, they dangled to and fro at every movement". Such Itelmens' clothing made an impression of hairiness.
Evens and Evenky (tunguses)
The Evens and Evenky (tunguses) are similar by culture. The Evens ancestors having come to Kamchatka changed their traditional occupation hunting for reindeer breeding. Russians arriving to Kamchatka called the Evens roaming from place to place along the Okhotsk seaside "lamuts", it means "living by the sea". Herdsmen they called "orochi", it means "reindeer men". Beside reindeer breeding and hunting the coastal Evens caught fish and hunted marine animals. For fishing they made different kinds of dams and traps. Blacksmith's work was very popular with the Evens.
The Northern Koryaks' neighbours were the Chukchis, "reindeer men" (chauchu), some of them moved to Kamchatka. As for the household the Chukchi were like the Koryaks - reindeer breeders. A holder of less than 100 reindeer was considered poor and couldn't keep a herd. Unfortunately, history of these two peoples' neighbourhood knows a lot of examples of wars for herds. The Chukchis are native Kamchatka people, now a lot of them live here. Like the Koryaks there were the Chukchis who lived in settled villages and provided their living by fishing and hunting for marine animals. The Chukchis are perfect seamen skillfully operating boats on a cold sea. It is well known that their "fleet" used to trade with the Eskimoes launching towards the American shore. Main hunting implements were a bow and arrows, a spear and a harpoon. A bow and a spear were used in hunting for wild reindeer and snow sheep, a harpoon and a lance - in marine hunting. Arrow-, spear- and harpoon-heads were made of bone and stone. In catching all water-fowl and game the Chukchis used bola (an instrument for catching birds on the wing) and pratsha (a military weapon either). The protection armour was made of antlers, walrus' skin and tusks. Main Chukchis' means of conveyance was reindeer, but like the Koryaks and Itelmens they also used dogsledges. On the sea the Chukchis moved in kayaks accommodating 20-30 men. With favorable wind they used square sails made of reindeer suede (rovdugas) like the Koryaks-Nimilans, and for a betterbalance they tied to board sides stocking-like sealskin, which was filled with air.
The Aleuts - ancient Aleutian Islands natives. They called themselves "unangan", it means "seaside residents". Main traditional Aleuts' occupations were hunting for marine animals and fishing. For winter the Aleuts stored eggs from birds colonies on the seashore.
Prof. Dr. Orhan KURAL
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