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Kamchatka's thermal hot springs
Viluchinski Thermal hot springsViluchinski Thermal hot springs consist from two group of hot springs with temperature 40'C till 60'C, situated in picturesque valley of Viluch river, among petty forests and shrubs; Springs are decorated with travers domes and dense colony of thermophilic aquatic plants with specific biological structure; slopes of river valley are good for mountain-skiing sport; a little higher of springs the river forms a nice 40 meters-high waterfall.
Nalychevo thermal hot springsNalychevo thermal hot springs are the biggest thermal carbonic acid springs at Kamchatka; unloading between Goryachaya and Zholtaya rivers at square more than 2 km2.
At the foot of Kruglaya mountain deposits of springs created a big travers plate more than 50000 km2 with dome, wich consist from carbonic and chalybeate-arsenic deposits (dome was called "boiler"). Along the plate a lot of hot springs come out, which form brook. Ceround the dome are thermal swamps.
Along the river Goryachaya concentrated outlets of therm as short hot streams, which falls into the cold river, and also as shallow lakes, puddles and swamps.
At those streams and lakes growing great colony of thermophilic aquatic plants. Which form manycoloured dense pillows. The same springs at the river Zholtaya (600m from mouth). From boiler till Goryachaya river in 1955 was made four chinks, and one of them is active till now. In this group is about 100 thermal springs with temperature from 14 till 75'C. Their visible debit is about 80 l/sec., and together with self-outpouring of chinks is 110 l/sec. Waters of Nalichevo springs are one of the seldom hydrochemical types; carbonic acid, arsenic, boric, siliceons chloride-sodium-calcium with medium mineralization; Springs are different one from another by their degree of dilute with superficial cold waters. They are weak-acid or weak-alkaline (pH 5,9-7,8) with general mineralization from 3,7 till 12 grams per liter and contain a lot of seldom elements (iodine, arsenic, borine, and others). The same elements are in precipitations (in high concentration), which forms in places of outlets of waters surface.
Taloviye springsTaloviye thermal hot springs are 6 km from Nalichevo thermal springs at the left of Porozhistaya valley. Outlets are for the space of 1 km, the temperature is about 31-38'C, their visible debit is 6 l/sec. General outlets (called "Taloviy boiler") is at the glade in dense birch forest. Here at the foot of low hill, formed two orange-bright travers domes 45 m. In diameter and 13 m. In height. At surface of travers flows warm streams. Space between domes and at the foot is swampy. Water of the Taloviye springs has the same hydrochemical structure as Nalichevo springs, but availability of sulphuritand hygrocarbon is higher. And also there is more of arsenic deposits at Taloviye springs. And finally, Talovaya water tastes nice, not like Nalichevaya water.
Krayevedcheski thermal springs come out at the banks of Talovaya river in two kilometers higher than it falls into the Shaibnaya river. Distance till Nalichevo springs is 8 km. Outlets of thermal waters as single gryphones and weak-ooze (out) are visible in 100 m. Swamp along the river. The temperature of water is 32-52'C, summary debit is 7 l/sec., it tastes like bitter-salty, and the structure is like Nalichevo therms, but it has higher miniralization. Krayevedcheski therms do not deposit travers; in its gas structure is more of nitrogen.
Bolshiye Banniye thermal hot springsBolshiye Banniye thermal hot springs are famous from time of visiting them by Krasheninnikov S.P. (1737-1740y.). It is on the left side of Bannaya river and has 24 groups on the thermal square (1,5 km.) It has more than 550 boiling, seetheing, fountaining sometimes with geysers focused at the outlets of thermal water, and also has mud boilers. Walls of single gryphones and places around it are covered with geyserits. Big plates of geyserits are testify about activity of springs in the past. Chemical structure of water mainly is sulphursodium with general mineralization about 0,7-1,4 grams per liter with cremni acid in it (300mg/l). In gas structure mainly is nitrogen and CO2. Borine and arsenic is in small amount in water and geyserit.
Maliye Banniye thermal hot springsMalliye Banniye thermal hot springs are in 5 km from Bolshiye Banniye, and also at the top of Bannaya river (left bank), and at the right bank of Maliy kluch river. Visible outlets of hot water (t=76'C) focused at small square (36m2) where warm stream starts. At the places of outlets of thermal water on the stones is salt (sulphate and geyserit), and around the outlets is usual thermophylic aquatic plants. The chemical structure of water the same as Bolshiye Banniye has (sulphur-sodium).
Thermal hot springs of KhodutkaOn the bottom of caldera, located on the place of ancient Khodutka volcano, between stone-birch forests and high-grass meadows there dispersed more than two dozens hot springs. Those springs form lake and river Goryachaya 1 km. long with width 15-20 m. and depth 0,5-2 m. The water temperatures are about 490C in river-head and 370C in river-mouth. Temperature of springs at the banks of river reaches 800C.
Water's chemical composition is hydrocarbonate-chloride-sodium with high mineralization (0,5 grams per liter) and silicone acid content 90 mgr. per liter. Alongside the gryphones and river banks variegated thermophilic algae can be found. In Spring time coastal line around the hot lake becomes lively green on the background of surrounding white snow.
This is a place of wild geese, sandpipers and mountain snipes hibernation.
Springs of Khodutka is a popular place of rest for tourists. Here you may not only to take a thermal bath but also to swim in natural thermal pool. The best time for this - Spring, when hot water lightly diluted by cold water from melted snow. Khodutka thermal springs are declared as Nature's memorial of landscape and balnealogical value.
Verchne-Zhirovski thermal springsVerchne-Zhirivski steam currents and springs are at the Upper Zhirovaya river, at the left side of it. Outlets of springs and steam currents are like difficult access gorges with very abrupt ages (few hundreds meters in high). Thermal springs and steam currents dispensed at large territory. Almost all of them are at the steep slopes. There is three part of slope, which like slopes of Severo-Mutnovski therms, has steam currents and mud boilers, and warm plates with boiling temperature; And also hot springs (60-72'C). Chemical structure of steam is sulfat-calcium-sodium with general mineralization about 0,2-0,5 grams per liter.
Nizhne-Zhirovski thermal hot springsNizhne-Zhirovski thermal hot springs are in 9 km from mouth of Zhirovaya river at the right side of it. Ground at the main field (120x60m) warmed up to 40-60'C. Outlets of thermal waters is like boiling reservoirs (2 m in diameter), there is gryphones without visible gutters, and hot springs. On the plate formed small bath (pool) (42-98'C). There is two more thermal plates, at the left bank of river (in 500m from main group of springs); each plate is 150x70m gathering streams to thermal waters with temperature about 35-84'C. At the rivers-bed blue-green aquatic plants growing. Chemical structure of water is chloride-sodium with general mineralization about 1,2-1,5 g/l. Structure of gas is carbonic acid-nitrogen.
Verchne-Paratunski thermal hot springsVerchne-Paratunski thermal hot springs are in the valley of Paratunka river, in 2,5 km higher from falling in it Karimshino river. Springs are at the slope of Goryachaya hill which divides valleys of that rivers, at 80m in high. Places of outlets of springs are visible, because of steam and typical plants; Hot springs (more than 16 of them) are form three parallel warm streams. In 70m from sources of stream is warm waterfall. Temperature of water in springs is about 39-70'C. Water is chloride-sulphat calcium-sodium moderate siliceous (till 45 mg/l) with general mineralization about 1g/l and arsenic in it (0,3 mg/l). Structure of free gas is nitrogen (97%).
Malkinski thermal springsMalkinski thermal hot springs are in picturesque place in 5km to East from Malki village, on the left bank of Kluchoyvka river (left tributary of Bistraya river). Valley of river is 0,4-0,5km in wide and both sides are limited with elevates covered with stone-birch forest. At small thermal plate, covered with pebbles, is 6 groups of gryphones (in them cold river water mixing with thermal water). Waters of springs are hydrocarbonic-chloride-sulphate-sodium with general mineralization till 0,7 g/l with cremnium and arsenic acides. Structure of gas is nitrogenic.
Karimchinski hot springsKarimchinski thermal hot springs are in narrow valley, surround with high rocks. A lot of outlets with temperature about 65'C are in space of 4km along the river. At the right bank, the hot water comes out from low bank cliff, and forms a nice fragile aquatic plants. Ground pools are at the same thermal plate.
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